American Film Institute . In revisiting the film in the s, Arthur Schlesinger believed that Hollywood films generally age well, revealing an unexpected depth or integrity, but in the case of Gone with the Wind time has not treated it kindly. Sarris concedes that despite its artistic failings, the film does hold a mandate around the world as the "single most beloved entertainment ever produced".
The film has featured in several high-profile industry polls: in it was voted the most popular film by the American Film Institute AFIin a poll of the organization's membership;  the AFI also ranked the film fourth on its " Greatest Movies " list in with it slipping down to sixth place in the tenth anniversary edition in Gone with the Wind has been criticized as having perpetuated Civil War myths and black stereotypes. And, in the background, the black slaves are mostly dutiful and content, clearly incapable of an independent existence.
From tothe With The Wind Historical Society held a number of Gone with the Wind exhibits, among them a exhibit which was titled, "Disputed Territories: Gone with the Wind and Southern Myths". Bryan Rommel Ruiz has argued that despite factual inaccuracies in its depiction of the Reconstruction period, Gone with the Wind reflects contemporary interpretations of it that were common in the early 20th century.
One such viewpoint is reflected in a brief scene in which Mammy fends off a leering freedman : a government official can be heard offering bribes to the emancipated slaves in exchange for their votes. The inference is taken to mean that freedmen are ignorant about politics and unprepared for freedom, unwittingly becoming the tools of corrupt Reconstruction officials. While perpetuating some Lost Cause myths, the film makes concessions with regard to others. After the attack on Scarlett in the shanty town, a group of men including Scarlett's husband Frank, Rhett Butler, and Ashley raid the town; in the novel they belong to the Ku Klux Klan, representing the common trope of protecting the white woman's virtue, but the filmmakers consciously neutralize the presence of the Klan in the film by simply referring to it as a "political meeting".
Thomas Cripps reasons that in some respects, the film undercuts racial stereotypes;  in particular, the film created greater engagement between Hollywood and black audiences,  with dozens of films making small gestures in recognition of the emerging trend. More than any film since The Birth of a Nationit unleashed a variety of social forces that foreshadowed an alliance of white liberals and blacks who encouraged the expectation that blacks would one day achieve equality.
According to Cripps, the film eventually became a template for measuring social change. In the 21st century, criticism of the film's depictions of race and slavery led to its availability being curtailed. InGone with the Wind was pulled from the schedule at the Orpheum Theatre in Memphis, Tennesseeafter a year run of annual showings.
On June 9,the film was removed from HBO Max amid the George Floyd protests as well as in response to an op-ed written by screenwriter John Ridley that was published in that day's edition of the Los Angeles Timeswhich called for the streaming service to temporarily remove the film from its content library. He wrote that "it continues to give cover to those who falsely claim that clinging to the iconography of the plantation era is a matter of 'heritage, not hate'.
It was also announced that the film would return to the streaming service at a later date, although it would incorporate "a discussion of its historical context and a denouncement of those very depictions, but will be presented as it was originally created, because to do otherwise would be the same With The Wind claiming these prejudices never existed.
If we are to create a more just, equitable and inclusive future, we must first acknowledge and understand our history. HBO Max returned the film to its service later that month, with a new introduction by Jacqueline Stewart.
One of the most notorious and widely condemned scenes in Gone with the Wind depicts what is now legally defined as " marital rape ". Molly Haskell has argued that, nevertheless, women are mostly uncritical of the scene, and that by and large it is consistent with what women have in mind if they fantasize about being raped.
Their fantasies revolve around love and romance rather than forced sex; they will assume that Scarlett was not an unwilling sexual partner and wanted Rhett to take the initiative and insist on having sexual intercourse.
Gone with the Wind and its production have been explicitly referenced, satirized, dramatized and analyzed on numerous occasions across a range of media, from contemporaneous works such as Second Fiddle —a film spoofing the "search for Scarlett"—to current television shows, such as The Simpsons. Following the publication of her novel, Margaret Mitchell was inundated with requests for a sequel but she claimed not to have a notion of what happened to Scarlett and Rhett, and as a result, she had "left them to their ultimate fate".
Until her death inMitchell continued to resist pressure to write a sequel from Selznick and MGM. Anne Edwards was commissioned to write the sequel as a novel which would then be adapted into a screenplay, and published in conjunction with the film's release.
Edwards submitted a page manuscript which was titled Tara, The Continuation of Gone with the Windset between and and focusing on Scarlett's divorce from Rhett; MGM was not satisfied with the story and the deal collapsed.
The idea was revived in the s, when a sequel was finally produced inin the form of a television miniseries. Scarlett was based on the novel by Alexandra Ripleyitself a sequel to Mitchell's book. British actors Joanne Whalley and Timothy Dalton were cast as Scarlett and Rhett, and the series follows Scarlett's relocation to Ireland after she again becomes pregnant by Rhett.
George [Cukor] finally told me all about it. He hated [leaving the production] very much he said but he could not do otherwise. In effect he said he is an honest craftsman and he cannot do a job unless he knows it is a good job and he feels the present job is not right. For days, he told me he has looked at the rushes and felt he was failing Gradually he became convinced that the script was the trouble David [Selznick], himself, thinks HE is writing the script And George has continually taken script from day to day, compared the [Oliver] Garrett-Selznick version with the [Sidney] Howard, groaned and tried to change some parts back to the Howard script.
But he seldom could do much with the scene So George just told David he would not work any longer if the script was not better and he wanted the Howard script back. David told George he was a director—not an author and he David was the producer and the judge of what is a good script George said he was a director and a damn good one and he would not let his name go out over a lousy picture And bull-headed David said "OK get out!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 23 September Theatrical pre-release poster. Hal C. Kern James E. Release date. Running time. Meade Leona Roberts as Mrs. Meade Jane Darwell as Mrs. Play media. AFI Years In a confidential memo written in SeptemberSelznick flirted with the idea of replacing him with Victor Fleming. Mayer had been trying to have Cukor replaced with an MGM director since negotiations between the two studios began in May In DecemberSelznick wrote to his wife about a phone call he had with Mayer: "During the same conversation, your father made another stab at getting George off of Gone With the Wind.
American Film Institute. Retrieved January 12, Movie History: A Survey 2nd ed. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 8, Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 26, City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the s. Gone with the Wind Online Exhibit. Archived from the original on June 2, The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved March 7, TCM database. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on September 26, Archived from the original on January 5, David O.
Selznick's Hollywood. New York: Alfred A. Scarlett Fever. New York: Macmillan Publishers. Peachtree Publishers. January 7, Selznick to Ed Sullivan". Archived from the original on October 28, Harry Ransom Center. Retrieved June 22, The Macon Telegraph. Retrieved September 28, Dictionary of Literary Biography.
Taylor Trade Publishing. Behlmer, Rudy ed. Memo from David O. New York: Modern Library published Ben Hecht. New York: Barricade Books.
Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. Robson Books. Vivien Leigh: A Biography. A Celebration of Gone with the Wind. Dragon's World. The Filming of Gone with the Wind. Mercer University Press. December 25, Retrieved July 6, University Press of Kentucky. Scarecrow Press. Retrieved January 25, Showman: The Life of David O. New York: Knopf. Archived from the original on November 27, Clark Gable: A Biography. Harmony Books. Great Depression: People and Perspectives. Perspectives in American Social History.
Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the s. History of the American Cinema. University of California Press. The New York Times. Retrieved July 14, Selznick's Gone with the Wind. New York: Random House. Taylor Trade Publications. Historical Dictionary of the s. Greenwood Publishing Group. Short Cuts. Wallflower Press. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on December 1, July 28, May 5, September 29, Chicago Tribune.
Retrieved January 29, December 20, Retrieved February 1, The Nation published December 16, Scarlett goes to Tara with Wade and Ella, seeking to regain her strength and vitality from "the green cotton fields of home. Bonnie is four years old in Spirited and willful, she has her father wrapped around her finger, and Atlanta society is charmed by Rhett's transformation from scandalous playboy to doting father.
Rhett buys Bonnie a Shetland ponyteaching her to ride sidesaddle and paying a trainer to teach the pony to jump. One day, Bonnie asks her father to raise the bar to one-and-a-half feet. He gives in, warning her not to come crying if she falls. During the jump, Bonnie falls and dies of a broken neck. In the dark days and months following Bonnie's death, Rhett is often drunk and disheveled, while Scarlett, though equally bereaved, is more presentable.
It is during this time that Melanie, still a young woman, falls ill and dies. As she comforts the newly-widowed Ashley, Scarlett finally realizes that she stopped loving Ashley long ago and that perhaps she never truly loved him. She is thunderstruck to realize that she has always, sincerely, deeply loved Rhett Butler and that he has loved her in return. She returns home, brimming with her new love and determined to begin anew with Rhett.
She discovers him packing his bags. In the wake of Melanie's death, Rhett has decided that he wants to rediscover the calm Southern dignity he once knew in his youth, and is leaving Atlanta to find it.
Scarlett tries to persuade Rhett to either stay or take her with him, but Rhett explains that while he once loved Scarlett deeply, the years of hurt and neglect have killed that love. He leaves and doesn't look back. In the midst of her maddening grief, Scarlett consoles herself with the knowledge that she still has Tara.
She plans to return there with the certainty that she can recover and win Rhett back, because "tomorrow is another day. Born in in AtlantaGeorgiaMargaret Mitchell was a Southerner and writer throughout her life.
She grew up hearing stories about the American Civil War and the Reconstruction from her Irish-American grandmother, who had endured its suffering. Her forceful and intellectual mother was a suffragist who fought for the rights of women to vote. As a young woman, Mitchell found love with an army lieutenant.
He was killed in World War Iand she would carry his memory for the remainder of her life. After studying at Smith College for a year, during which time her mother died from the pandemic fluMitchell returned to Atlanta. She married, but her husband was an abusive bootlegger. Mitchell took a job writing feature articles for the Atlanta Journal at a time when Atlanta debutantes of her class did not work.
After divorcing her first husband, she married again, this time to a man who shared her interest in writing and literature. He had also been the best man at her first wedding. Margaret Mitchell began writing Gone with the Wind in to pass the time while recovering from a slow-healing auto-crash injury. After Latham agreed to publish the book, Mitchell worked for another six months checking the historical references and rewriting the opening chapter several times.
Mitchell wrote the book's final moments first and then wrote the events that led up to them. The author tentatively titled the novel Tomorrow is Another Dayfrom its last line. I have forgot much, Cynara! Scarlett O'Hara uses the title phrase when she wonders to herself if her home on a plantation called " Tara " is still standing, or if it had "gone with the wind which had swept through Georgia.
When taken in the context of Dowson's poem about "Cynara," the phrase "gone with the wind" alludes to erotic loss. Margaret Mitchell arranged Gone with the Wind chronologically, basing it on the life and experiences of the main character, Scarlett O'Hara, as she grew from adolescence into adulthood. During the time span of the novel, from toScarlett ages from sixteen to twenty-eight years.
This is a type of Bildungsroman a novel concerned with the moral and psychological growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood coming-of-age story. Scarlett's development is affected by the events of her time. The novel is known for its exceptional "readability". Gone with the Wind is often placed in the literary subgenre of the historical romance novel. Slavery in the United States in Gone with the Wind is a backdrop to a story that is essentially about other things.
The characters in the novel are organized into two basic groups along class lines: the white planter class, such as Scarlett and Ashley, and the black house servant class.
Of the servants who stayed at Tara, Scarlett thinks, "There were qualities of loyalty and tirelessness and love in them that no strain could break, no money could buy. The field slaves make up the lower class in Mitchell's caste system. Mitchell wrote that other field slaves were "loyal" and "refused to avail themselves of the new freedom",  but the novel has no field slaves who stay on the plantation to work after they have been emancipated.
American William Wells Brown escaped from slavery and published his memoir, or slave narrativein He wrote of the disparity in conditions between the house servant and the field hand:. During the time that Mr. Cook was overseer, I was a house servant—a situation preferable to a field hand, as I was better fed, better clothed, and not obliged to rise at the ringing bell, but about an half hour after.
I have often laid and heard the crack of the whip, and the screams of the slave. Elliott, Although the novel is more than 1, pages long, the character of Mammy never considers what her life might be like away from Tara.
You kain sen' me nowhar Ah doan wanter go," but Mammy remains duty-bound to "Miss Ellen's chile. Eighteen years before the publication of Gone with the Windan article titled, "The Old Black Mammy," written in the Confederate Veteran indiscussed the romanticized view of the mammy character persisting in Southern literature :.
Micki McElyain her book Clinging to Mammysuggests the myth of the faithful slave, in the figure of Mammy, lingered because white Americans wished to live in a world in which African Americans were not angry over the injustice of slavery, With The Wind.
The best-selling anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published inis mentioned briefly in Gone with the Wind as being accepted by the Yankees as "revelation second only to the Bible". The southern belle is an archetype for a young woman of the antebellum American South upper class. The southern belle was believed to be physically attractive but, more importantly, personally charming with sophisticated social skills.
She is subject to the correct code of female behavior. For young Scarlett, the ideal southern belle is represented by her mother, Ellen O'Hara.
The Southern belle was bred to conform to a subspecies of the nineteenth-century "lady" For Scarlett, the ideal is embodied in her adored mother, the saintly Ellen, whose back is never seen to rest against the back of any chair on which she sits, whose broken spirit everywhere With The Wind mistaken for righteous calm However, Scarlett is not always willing to conform.
The figure of a pampered southern belle, Scarlett lives through an extreme reversal of fortune and wealth, and survives to rebuild Tara and her self-esteem. Marriage was supposed to be the goal of all southern belles, as women's status was largely determined by that of their husbands. All social and educational pursuits were directed towards it. Despite the Civil War and loss of a generation of eligible men, young ladies were still expected to marry.
The exhibit asked, "Was Scarlett a Lady? White women performed traditional jobs such as teaching and sewing, and generally disliked work outside the home. During the Civil War, Southern women played a major role as volunteer nurses working in makeshift hospitals.
Many were middle- and upper class women who had never worked for wages or seen the inside of a hospital.
One such nurse was Ada W. Bacot, a young widow who had lost two children. Bacot came from a wealthy South Carolina plantation family that owned 87 slaves. In the fall ofConfederate laws were changed to permit women to be employed in hospitals as members of the Confederate Medical Department. They are in the hall, on the gallery, and crowded into very small rooms. The foul air from this mass of human beings at first made me giddy and sick, but I soon got over it.
We have to walk, and when we give the men any thing kneel, in blood and water; but we think nothing of it at all. Several battles are mentioned or depicted in Gone with the Wind. Union General Sherman suffers heavy losses to the entrenched Confederate army. Unable to pass through Kennesaw, Sherman swings his men around to the Chattahoochee River where the Confederate army is waiting on the opposite side of the river.
Although Abraham Lincoln is mentioned in the novel fourteen times, no reference is made to his assassination on April 14, Ashley Wilkes is the beau ideal of Southern manhood in Scarlet's eyes. A planter by inheritance, Ashley knew the Confederate cause had died. His "pallid skin literalizes the idea of Confederate death. Ashley contemplates leaving Georgia for New York City.
Had he gone North, he would have joined numerous other ex-Confederate transplants there. He feels he is not "shouldering a man's burden" at Tara and believes he is "much less than a man—much less, indeed, than a woman". A "young girl's dream of the Perfect Knight",  Ashley is like a young girl himself. Scarlett's love interest, Ashley Wilkes, lacks manliness, and her husbands—the "calf-like"  Charles Hamilton, and the "old-maid in britches",  Frank Kennedy—are unmanly as well.
Mitchell is critiquing masculinity in southern society since Reconstruction. The word "scallawag" is defined as a loafer, a vagabond, or a rogue. In the early years of the Civil War, Rhett is called a "scoundrel" for his "selfish gains" profiteering as a blockade-runner.
As a scallawag, Rhett is despised. He is the "dark, mysterious, and slightly malevolent hero loose in the world". If Gone with the Wind has a theme it is that of survival. What makes some people come through catastrophes and others, apparently just as able, strong, and brave, go under?
It happens in every upheaval. Some people survive; others don't. What qualities are in those who fight their way through triumphantly that are lacking in those that go under? I only know that survivors used to call that quality 'gumption. The sales of Margaret Mitchell's novel in the summer ofas the nation was recovering from the Great Depression and at the virtually unprecedented high price of three dollars, reached about one million by the end of December. Ralph Thompson, a book reviewer for The New York Timeswas critical of the length of the novel, and wrote in June I happen to feel that the book would have been infinitely better had it been edited down to say, pages, but there speaks the harassed daily reviewer as well as the would-be judicious critic.
Very nearly every reader will agree, no doubt, that a more disciplined and less prodigal piece of work would have more nearly done justice to the subject-matter. Mitchell herself claimed Charles Dickens as an inspiration and called Gone with the Wind a "' Victorian ' type novel. The book brought her fond memories of her southern infancy but she also felt sadness comparing that with what she knew about the South. Gone with the Wind has been criticized for its stereotypical and derogatory portrayal of African Americans in the 19th century South.
Like monkeys or small children turned loose among treasured objects whose value is beyond their comprehension, they ran wild—either from perverse pleasure in destruction or simply because of their ignorance. Commenting on this passage of the novel, Jabari Asimauthor of The N Word: Who Can Say It, Who Shouldn't, and Whysays it is, " one of the more charitable passages in Gone With the WindMargaret Mitchell hesitated to blame black 'insolence' during Reconstruction solely on 'mean niggers',  of which, she said, there were few even in slavery days.
Critics say that Mitchell downplayed the violent role of the Ku Klux Klan and their abuse of freedmen. Author Pat Conroyin his preface to a later edition of the novel, describes Mitchell's portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan as having "the same romanticized role it had in The Birth of a Nation and appears to be a benign combination of the Elks Club and a men's equestrian society".
Regarding the historical inaccuracies of the novel, historian Richard N. Current points out:. No doubt it is indeed unfortunate that Gone with the Wind perpetuates many myths about Reconstruction, particularly with respect to blacks. Margaret Mitchell did not originate them and a young novelist can scarcely be faulted for not knowing what the majority of mature, professional historians did not know until many years later. In Gone with the WindMitchell explores some complexities in racial issues.
Scarlett was asked by a Yankee woman for advice on whom to appoint as a nurse for her children; Scarlett suggested a "darky", much to the disgust of the Yankee woman who was seeking an Irish maid, a "Bridget".
Ethnic slurs on the Irish and Irish stereotypes pervade the novel, O'Connell claims, and Scarlett is not an exception to the terminology. The novel has been criticized for promoting plantation values and romanticizing the white supremacy of the antebellum south. She said that the popular film "promotes a false notion of the Old South ". Mitchell was not involved in the screenplay or film production. Mitchell's use of color in the novel is symbolic and open to interpretation. Corporations, professional sports leagues, brands, and other business and cultural entities have been issuing statements left and right, while others have taken actions that may have been unimaginable in previous times.
For years now activists have been attempting to cancel the Confederate With The Wind and eliminate other monuments to the fallen Confederacy, along with removing the names of former slave owners and white supremacists that continue to adorn buildings on various school and college campuses, among numerous other attempts to destroy the legacy of the slaveholding south that was supposed to have died with the end of the civil war.
We can now add films celebratory of this defeated legacy like Gone With the Wind to the list as well. Of course there will be those who cry foul, who suggest that this is nothing more than politically correct censorship. Removing those things that honor and celebrate racists is not erasing history. Instead this is holding history accountable, while providing necessary context.
The south supposedly lost the civil war. There is an overused cliche which suggests that the winners write history. Is this true? If it is, then why do all these relics of the losing side still circulate in this society so many years after the civil war ended? The point is, films like Gone With the Wind should have been held accountable a long time ago.
It was celebrated for its technological mastery of visual storytelling, yet its narrative is nothing more than racist propaganda. The heroes of the film are the Ku Klux Klan who ride in at the appropriate climactic moment to save the day. The Birth of a Nation is at the root, so if racism is at the root, the fruit that emerges from this tainted root can only be the fruit of racism.
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